Social media refers to user-created content (audio, text, video, multimedia) that is published and shared online. It is also the online technology that allows users to share content and communicate with one another. Social media has changed how we live our lives and affected how nearly every industry does business. People use social media to stay informed, compare and buy products, and keep in touch with family and friends. Companies also use social media to reach customers. They have in-house social media departments or hire consulting firms to help them develop a social media strategy, market their products, and manage their profile across various types of social media. Nonprofits and government agencies use them to spread information about their programs and services.
In a general sense, social media has been around since the beginning of the Internet, but Six Degrees, the first social-networking site, launched in 1997. Marketing professors Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein identify six different types of social media. In their Business Horizons article, “Users of the World, Unite! The Challenges and Opportunities of Social Media,” they named the following:
- collaborative projects (e.g., Wikipedia)
- blogs and microblogs (e.g., Twitter)
- content communities (e.g., YouTube, Flickr)
- social-networking sites (e.g., Facebook, LinkedIn, Instagram)
- virtual game worlds (e.g., World of Warcraft)
- virtual social worlds (e.g., Second Life)
No discussion of social media is complete without mention of the Internet—the delivery method for all those blog posts, pictures, videos, and Tweets. The Internet is a worldwide network of computer networks linked through high-speed, high-volume telephone lines and cables, as well as via Wi-Fi connections. It has come a long way from its start in the 1960s as a vast, indestructible U.S. military computer network that could communicate even when under enemy attack. Today, the Internet is open to everyone and a major destination for information, commerce, entertainment, and communication. In 2019, 90 percent of the U.S. population used the Internet, according to the Pew Research Center. Only 48 percent of Americans were online in 2000.
Revenue is expected to reach $50.86 billion by 2021. Social media has become extremely popular (and a lucrative industry) in recent years. In February 2019, 72 percent of the public used some type of social media, according to the Pew Research Center. Revenue in the social media industry is increasing rapidly. In 2019, worldwide social networking advertising revenue reached $36.14 billion, according to eMarketer. This is a 25.5 percent increase from 2018. Revenue is expected to $50.86 billion by 2021.
The social media industry provides another great benefit: jobs for people with a variety of educational backgrounds and skill sets. There are many rewarding careers in the industry. Social media managers, software engineers and designers, computer programmers, and other computer scientists are in demand, but so are workers with creative backgrounds such as writers, graphic designers, and marketing professionals. Workers with no technical or creative background may find jobs in administration, finance, law, and other areas.
Several types of companies create and/or utilize social media. Some companies, such as Google offer several types of products and services. For example, Google offers the search engine Chrome and hardware (Pixel, Chromecast, etc.). It also offered the social networking site Google+ until it closed access to personal accounts in 2019. Others, such as Pinterest, specialize in social media. There are also thousands of start-ups that are still seeking to capture the public’s interest or find venture capital funding to build their brands. Companies are located throughout the United States, but often are headquartered in California, the Pacific Northwest, and New York City. Typical departments at these companies include:
- business development
- content creation
- corporate communications
- customer service and support
- data and analytics
- finance and administration
- human resources
- information systems and technology (including data security)
- legal affairs
- quality assurance
- regulatory affairs
One thing is certain about the social media industry: the field is growing, and it will offer a wide range of career opportunities for years to come.
- Cutting edge. It’s cool to be on the cutting edge of technology.
- Smart coworkers. The industry is loaded with creative, well-educated people who are often inspiring to work with.
- Career diversity. Jobs are available for people with every type of skill set, personality type, and educational background, and there are many opportunities to transition to other careers in the field.
- Financial rewards. Social media workers often receive high salaries and good benefits. For example, in 2016, social media managers earned salaries that ranged from $50,500 to $101,250, according to The Creative Group. The mean salary for workers in all careers was $53,490 in 2019, according to the U.S. Department of Labor. Getting in on the ground floor of a promising start-up can translate into a big payoff if the company goes public.
- Geographic freedom. Opportunities are available throughout the United States and in foreign countries.
- Independence. Creative entrepreneurs can start their own businesses and build them into the next Snapchat, TikTok, or Facebook.
- Work at home. Some jobs offer the opportunity to telecommute.
- Great perks. Top companies offer excellent perks such as free cafeterias, paid maternity and paternity leave, and complete medical/dental benefits.
- Good opportunities for advancement. With the right combination of education and experience, you can advance to a managerial or executive-level position.
- Limited job security. The industry is constantly expanding, contracting, and restructuring. Expect to change jobs, and sometimes even cities, frequently.
- Deadlines. Deadlines are constant. This can create a stressful work environment.
- Long hours. Expect to work long hours as project deadlines loom. If you helm a start-up, plan to work 24/7 to launch your site or product.
- Compensation. Some jobs, especially at start-ups, are low-paying and don’t provide benefits.
- Lack of geographic freedom. Many top tech companies are located in California, the Pacific Northwest, and on the East Coast. That’s great if you already live there, but bad if you don’t want to relocate.
- Sedentary work environment. Be prepared to spend a lot of time sitting in front of a computer.
- Constant learning. Technology changes constantly, and you will have to work hard to stay up to date.
- Fewer opportunities for women. The tech industry is male-dominated, which sometimes creates uncomfortable or even hostile work environments for women.
- Art Directors
- Chief Information Officers
- Computer and Video Game Designers
- Computer Programmers
- Computer Systems Programmer/Analysts
- Computer Trainers
- Database Specialists
- Digital Advertising and Marketing Workers
- Digital Designers
- Graphic Designers
- Graphics Programmers
- Internet Consultants
- Internet Developers
- Internet Executives
- Internet Marketing and Advertising Consultants
- Internet Quality Assurance Specialists
- Internet Security Specialists
- Internet Store Managers and Entrepreneurs
- Internet Transaction Specialists
- Market Research Analysts
- Media Planners and Buyers
- Media Relations Specialists
- Mobile Software Developers
- Online Journalists
- Online Producers
- Online Reputation Managers
- Personal Privacy Advisors
- Search Engine Optimization Specialists
- Social Media Influencers
- Social Media Workers
- Software Application Developers
- Software Designers
- Software Engineers
- Software Quality Assurance Testers
- User Experience Designers