In the history of every industry, there are well-known events that shaped it and formed it into what it is today. Many of these relate to the invention or refinement of technology, but some relate to world events and the laws and regulations that changed the way the industry operated or was viewed. In the energy industry, these events include technological breakthroughs, government regulations, and the discoveries that led to alternative energy sources such as solar energy and wind energy.
The 18th and 19th Centuries: Discovering Energy Sources
One of the energy industry’s first defining moments is Benjamin Franklin’s famous experiment with his kite and a key in 1752. Franklin wanted to prove that static electricity and lightning were one and the same thing. The experiment took place on a stormy afternoon in June in Philadelphia. The 46-year-old Franklin enlisted the assistance of his son, William. They tied the key at the end of his kite and then extended a wire from the key into a Leyden jar, capable of storing electrical charges. As history shows, his experiment was a success, and this new understanding of electricity paved the way for modern power.
Solar energy was also investigated during this time. People learned thousands of years ago to channel the sun’s rays and deflect them using magnifying glasses, but one of the first pivotal moments for solar energy was when Swiss scientist Horace de Saussure created what he called “hot boxes.” In 1767, de Saussure built five glass boxes of varying sizes that could be stacked inside each other. He exposed them to the sun for several hours and then measured the interior temperature of each one. He later used this equipment to cook food.
More than 100 years later, around 1875, Great Britain became the first country to commercialize the use of natural gas. Natural gas companies generated the gas from coal, which was used to light houses and streetlights. In 1879, German chemist Martin Klaproth discovered uranium and named it after the planet Uranus, marking the earliest origins of the nuclear power industry.
Developments in each of the leading industry sectors continued in the 19th century. For example, manufactured natural gas (as opposed to naturally occurring gas) was first used in the United States in 1816 to light the streets of Baltimore, Maryland. And in 1839, a French scientist named Edmond Becquerel conducted an experiment with an electrolytic cell that consisted of two metal electrodes in a solution that was a good conductor of electricity. His experiment identified the photovoltaic effect, which eventually led to photovoltaic cells used in solar energy systems.
Presaging the petroleum energy industry, Edwin Drake drilled the first commercial oil well in Oil Creek, Pennsylvania, in 1859. It was considered a huge producing well at the time, and its oil was mainly used for kerosene and in kerosene lamps. But it opened the door for later use of oil to warm homes and fuel motor vehicles. After Drake’s first well, oil began to be refined, and by the late 1800s it was used for lighting and heating. John D. Rockefeller started investing in oil refining in Cleveland in 1863 and within nine years controlled 21 of the 26 refineries in the city. Rockefeller wanted his products to be made according to his standards, and he wanted it known to the buying public. So he called his company the Standard Oil Company. By 1890, Standard Oil controlled 90 percent of oil refining in the United States. The government later broke up the company, calling it a monopoly.
Thomas Edison invented the incandescent light bulb in 1879. His initial light bulb lasted a total of 40 hours. Only two years after the invention, Edison opened one of the world’s first electric power stations in 1881 on Pearl Street in Manhattan. Edison’s direct current (DC) system was designed to provide enough electricity to power 5,000 lights. Then, in June 1887, the first windmill for electricity production was built by Professor James Blyth of Anderson's College, Glasgow (now the University of Strathclyde). It took three different versions before he was able to power his home in Scotland, but once he got it right, it worked for 25 years.
1900–1950: The Modern Energy Era Begins
One of the first defining moments of the new century occurred when Henry Ford designed the Model T, which was manufactured between 1903 and 1926. The end result of this discovery was the demand for transportation fuel. What many people do not realize is that the car was originally designed to run on hemp-derived biofuel. Because there were huge supplies of crude oil at the time, however, and it was a cheap fuel source that did not have to be cultivated like hemp plants, eventually oil became the sole source of fuel for automobiles.
The solar energy industry took a step toward modern solar energy systems in 1908. William J. Bailey of the Carnegie Steel Company built a solar collector with copper coils and an insulated box. Twelve years later, the electricity industry marked an important transition. At the time, most generating plants were hydroelectric-powered, but there was also interest in utilizing coal for this purpose. The first plant to operate solely on coal was opened and began operations in 1920. In 1927, in Minneapolis, Minnesota, Joe and Marcellus Jacobs opened the Jacobs Wind Electric Company, producing wind turbine generators, which were used on farms to charge batteries and power lighting.
Worried that the natural gas industry would fall under the control of a monopoly like Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company, the government enacted the Natural Gas Act in 1938. The Natural Gas Act imposed regulations and restrictions on the price of natural gas to protect consumers from high prices. The natural gas sector wasn’t the only one regulated during the first half of the 20th century. In 1946, the U.S. government created the Atomic Energy Commission. Its purpose was twofold: to promote and regulate nuclear power.
1950–2000: Regulation and New Energy Sources
By the second half of the 20th century, coal-based generating plants produced most of the electricity used in the United States, natural gas had become the leading source of cooking and heating fuel, and oil was king when it came to transportation. Still, research continued for both established and alternative fuel sources. For example, in 1954, scientists at Bell Labs were successful in developing the first silicon photovoltaic cell that was capable of converting enough solar energy into power that it could operate equipment in the lab.
This was a sign of things to come. By the 1970s, the United States and other western countries recognized that their supplies of oil were limited and not entirely within their control. In 1960, five leading oil-producing countries joined to form the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and control the price of oil. OPEC’s original five members were Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela. When OPEC enacted an oil embargo against the United States in 1972, it highlighted how the nation’s dependence on foreign oil made it vulnerable. Concern over possible fuel shortages and increasingly high oil prices led to a renewed interest in alternative fuel sources. In 1972, one of the first academic research organizations devoted to the study of solar energy opened. Called the Institute of Energy Conversion, it was (and still) a part of the University of Delaware, and its mission was to develop thin-film photovoltaic and solar thermal systems.
Wind energy received a boost in 1980 when the world's first wind farm, which consisted of 20 turbines, was built in New Hampshire. Unfortunately, it was not a success due to turbine failure and other issues. Two years later, in 1982, the first megawatt-scale solar power system went online in Hisperia, California. It generated 1 megawatt of power. By the next year, solar power systems generated 21.3 megawatts, and realized sales of $250 million.
Fear of pollution and concern for the environment exerted a major influence on the energy industry. In 1989, when the Exxon Valdez oil tanker ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, a devastating oil spill occurred and damaged the environment. For many people, this marked a turning point in the urgency for finding better, cleaner energy supplies. As a result of the spill, the United States Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, which prevents any oil tanker that has created a spill greater than 1 million gallons from operating in Prince William Sound.
Before the end of the century, a major shift in energy sources was underway. In the 1990s, the first natural gas-powered power plants were put into service in the United States, and the first solar power system to enter the traditional power grid came online in 1993. Built and operated by Pacific Gas and Electric, in California, it generated 500 kilowatts of power.
The Twenty-First Century: New Technologies and Battles Over Energy and Environmental Policy
Technologies developed quickly and received new incentives during the late 1990s and early 2000s. Many improvements were made in the energy industry. By 2002, the largest solar power plant in the northwest, the White Bluffs Solar Station, began generating 38.7 kilowatts in Richland, Washington. In April 2009, the government published the first framework for a wind energy development program. The plan included leases, easements, and rights-of-way for environmentally responsible renewable energy development activities, including the sitting and construction of offshore wind farms on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf. At the same time, government regulations increasingly challenged established energy companies. In 2015, the Obama Administration released the final version of its Clean Power Plan, which established state-by-state targets for carbon emissions reductions by power plants. The Trump administration is in the process of rolling back many aspects of the Clean Power Plan, a course contested by environmentalists. A court ruling on the issue is expected in the next 12 to 24 months.
A major milestone occurred in April of 2010 when the Deepwater Horizon rig exploded and caught fire while drilling BP’s Macondo exploration well in the Gulf of Mexico. Eleven workers were killed. The explosion and subsequent oil spill created a major environmental catastrophe along the Gulf Coast and led to heated debate over safety standards, government regulation, and whether or not energy companies should be allowed to drill off the coast of the United States.
The election of Donald Trump as U.S. president in November 2016 had a major effect on U.S. energy policy. The Trump administration has taken a largely pro-business, pro-fossil fuel stance. In one major example of this new approach, President Trump pulled the United States out of the Paris Climate Agreement in June 2017. The non-binding treaty, which was signed by nearly 200 nations, called on countries to make voluntary pledges to reduce carbon emissions in an attempt to reduce the effects of global warming. In early 2018, the Trump administration announced plans to open the coastline of the continental United States to oil and natural gas drilling. “If adopted in full, the plan would change long-standing U.S. energy policy and possibly generate a windfall for the oil and gas industry,” according to The Atlantic. “Billions of acres would open up for oil drilling on the U.S. Atlantic continental shelf, which has never had a producing oil well. And for the first time in 30 years, energy companies could expand production along the Pacific coast and open wells outside of the southern California coast.” Conservationists worry that another disaster like the Deepwater Horizon spill could happen. The American public also has concerns about increased fossil fuel production. In 2017, 61 percent of Americans surveyed by Gallup said that the federal government should focus on natural-resource and energy conservation over the production of new oil, gas, and coal reserves.
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